Éire - Ireland: The Emerald Isle


Travel pictures from Ireland

by Dr. Günther Eichhorn


Ireland Map

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In August 2004 I visited another country in Western Europe, Ireland, for the first time, one of the very few European countries I had not visited before. I rented a car in Dublin and drove counterclockwise around Ireland in 6 days. I had good and bad experiences. Visiting old Stone Age sites and medieval castles was the good part of the trip. The people however were sometimes less than nice.

On the first day I drove north from Dublin to visit Mainistir Bhuithe (Monasterboice) Abbey in County Louthe. It has a beautiful Round Tower and two of the best High Crosses in Ireland. After that I visited Brú na Bóinne, County Meath, an extensive Neolithic site, with the main passage tombs Newgrange and Knowth, dating from around 3200 BCE. There are beautifully decorated kerbstones around the main tomb in Knowth. This neolithic necropolis is 1000 years older than Stonehenge, and is one of the most extraordinary sites in Europe.

From there I drove north to Boyle, County Roscommon to visit the beautiful Drumanone Dolmen, one of the largest in Ireland. It was difficult to find since there are no signs for it, but it was well worth the effort tracking it down.

The first over-night stop was in Boyle. The next morning I visited the abbey in Boyle, one of the largest and best Cistercian abbeys, founded in the 12th century.

North-west of Boyle, on the way to Sligo City is the Carrowkeel passage tomb cemetery. The passage tombs are located on top of a hill with a great view of the surrounding country side. The directions to the site are posted, so they were easier to find than the Drumanone Dolmen. The cemetery dates from the late Paleolithic (3000 - 2000 BCE).

Near Sligo are two interesting Stone Age sites, the Carrowmore Megalithic Cemetery and the Knocknarea Cairn. Carrowmore has a large number of stone circles and dolmens. It is one of the largest Stone Age cemeteries in Europe, dating from around 3900 BCE. The largest passage grave was unfortunately closed for renovation.

Looking around Carrowmore you can see cairns on almost every mountain top visible form there. The largest of these is Knocknarea Cairn, dating from around 3000 BCE. Legend has it that the legendary Queen Maeve is buried in that cairn. If so, she was buried in the existing cairn, since the cairn is from the Stone Age, while Queen Maeve supposedly lived in the 1st century BCE.

From Sligo I drove west towards Ballycastle and then south to Newport, County Mayo. Rockfleet Castle and Burrishoole Abbey are located near Newport. After that the next stop was Cong, County Mayo. It has a nice Stone Circle, and the Ballymacgibbon Cairn.

The next overnight stay was in Galway City, County Galway. Unfortunately it was raining, so I couldn't get around town to see some of the pubs with traditional Irish music there.

From Galway I checked out the Turoe Stone, a small phallic standing stone, carved in La Téne style, from between 300 BCE and 100 CE. It was a bit difficult to find, but worth the search.

From there I drove into the Burren. The Burren is a region with between Galway and Clare Counties. It has fantastic scenery. At the entrance to the Burren, near Kinvara, County Galway is Dunguaire Castle, in excellent condition after extensive restoration. Next stop in the Burren was Corcomroe Abbey, County Clare, a fine Cistercian abbey from the 12th century.

The highlight of the Burren in my opinion is the Poulnabrone Dolmen. For me this was by far the most beautiful Dolmen of them all.

On the way out of the Burren to the south was Carrigafoyle Castle, near Ballylongford, County Kerry. It is nice, but probably not worth the detour you have to make to get to it. Even less worth the visit is Listowel Castle, County Kerry. There is basically nothing but one small wall in some backyard. The next overnight stop was in Killarney, County Kerry.

From Killarney I drove around the Ring of Kerry, a road around the Kerry Peninsula, County Kerry. The first stop was Ballycarbery Castle. This was the most scenic castle ruin that I saw on the trip. Close-by are a couple of Ring Forts (Leancanabuaile from the 9th century and Cahergall from the 10th century). Cahergall is restored and well worth visiting.

A ring fort is, in its simplest form, a circular space surrounded by a bank, with possibly a fosse or ditch outside the bank. (In stony areas such as the Burren, where the bank is of stone, there would frequently be no fosse, as the amount of excavation would have been excessive.) Sometimes the earthen banks were faced or reinforced with stone. In the Irish language, a variety of words were used to name these structures, and since these often survive in the modern place name (e.g.Liscannor, Dunmore), the existence of a fort or forts can often be deduced. The most common Irish names were lios, ráth, dún, cathair and caiseal. The typical ring fort was used as a dwelling-place, and would have contained one or more simple houses made of upright wooden posts interlaced with a wattle-and-daub lattice construction. At night the domestic animals would have been herded into the enclosure through a gap in the bank, which would have been closed by means of a simple gate or other barrier. Apart from some larger examples, which by reason of their elaborate banks and ditches we know to have had a defensive significance, most ring-forts were simply an early type of farmstead, giving protection against predators such as wolves. Many forts have one or more souterrains within the structure, and some of the stone forts have wall chambers. As a general rule, earth forts are more common towards the east of Ireland, and stone forts are more common towards the west, as the land is more stony. Only the very mountainous areas do not possess ring forts. The dates are uncertain: perhaps late bronze age into the iron age.

On the south side of the Kerry Peninsula is the Staigue Ring Fort. It is also restored and well worth visiting. It is at a strategically very important location, hidden from view from below, but with great visibility in all directions.

The next part of the day was the Ring of Beara, a road around the Mor Choaird Bheara (Beara Peninsula), Counties Kerry and Cork. If you want to see Stone Circles, that is the place to go. I saw four very nice examples on that road, the Srón Bearraín (Shronebirrane), Caiseal Coíllte (Cashelkeelty), An Rath Chruinn Dha Dhroim (Ardgroom), and Doirin an t'Sagairt (Derreenataggart) Stone Circles. I can highly recommend visiting them. Up the road from the Derreenataggart Stone Circle, out of Castletownbere, County Cork, also is a Ring Fort. This one is not excavated, so it is interesting to see what a Ring Fort looks like in that state.

From here I skipped the Sheep's Head and Mizen Head Peninsulas and drove south to the south coast of Ireland. The Dromberg Stone Circle, near Rosscarberry, County Cork, is a must see. It is from the 1st century CE or even earlier. It is in a very scenic location, with a superb view of the land below. It has the remains of several buildings next to it.

The next over-night stop was in Kinsale, County Cork. Kinsale has a huge star shaped Fort, the Charles Fort, one of the largest and best preserved star forts in Europe.

From Kinsale I headed north-east to Cahir, County Tipperary. Cahir Castle is the nicest well preserved castle that I saw on the trip.

Next stop was the Rock of Cashel. It overlooks the city of Cashel, County Tipperary. It is spectacular archaeological site with an abbey, a Romanesque chapel, and a complete Round Tower. It is certainly worth a visit.

The next stop was Kilkenny Castle, County Kilkenny. This is a fully restored castle. It is not as much a fortification like Cahir Castle, but more of a palace.

From there I drove to the Dolmain Chnoi an Bhrúnaigh (Browne's Hill Dolmen), near Carlow Town, County Carlow. This is the largest Dolmen in Europe. The cap stone weighs over 100 tons. This 5000 year old Dolmen is HUGE.

Going north, I passed through Castledermot, County Carlow. It has a 9th century abbey with a Round Tower, a Romanesque doorway and two nice 9th or 10th century High Crosses.

One of Ireland's most important monastic cities is Cluain Mhic Nóis (Clonmacnoise), County Offaly. It was founded in 548 CE by St. Ciarán. It has a very nice Round Tower and a couple of superb High Crosses, as well as a large cathedral, originally built in 909 CE.

My last over-night stop was in a small village west of Dublin called Tyrrellspass. From there I headed north to Trim, County Meath to visit the Trim Castle. This is another very nice castle, founded in 1173.

From there I headed back to Dublin airport for the continuation of my trip to Germany.

I did quite a bit of driving in Ireland and have to say that it was somewhat exasperating. I hardly ever saw anybody speeding (which is a good thing). Unfortunately they take the slow driving seriously. You can bet that it won't take you more than a few miles before you are behind somebody dawdling along at 50 km/h (31 mph) or less. Passing is often very difficult on the small roads, so you have to dawdle along behind him. That was no fun! Many drivers are also very hesitant and indecisive. They are standing at an intersection and waiting for a car that is half a mile down the road, plenty far enough to cross the road without any problem. This hesitant and indecisive driving was very prevalent everywhere in Ireland.

Talking about 30 mph (miles per hour for the imperial-measures-handicapped non-US and non-Irish): the Irish have a strange system of measures in that respect. Speeds are posted in mph, and speedometers are marked in mph. Odometers in the cars therefore count in miles. However, distances on road signs are in kilometers!! That makes for constant mental gymnastics to convert miles in kilometers and vice versa. On top of that, some older road signs are still in miles, which really got confusing.

I had some problems with the Irish people. I am a crossdresser, so I was wearing skirts at times. In a few places they didn't like that and were a few times somewhat intolerant and rude. Over the six days that accumulated to a negative impression of the Irish people for me. Fortunately there were also a few instances where I had a great time, for instance in the bar in Boyle with traditional Irish music. After an initial surprised reaction to my skirt, everybody was back to the music and story telling.

The weather in Ireland was mixed, with quite a bit of rain. That is presumably not unusual, as somebody from Ireland put it: "Ireland would be a really nice country if it had a roof over it." I guess there is a reason why Ireland is so green       :-\)

If you are interested in Stone Age and Celtic stuff, and medieval architecture, Ireland is certainly a country that you should visit. If you wear unusual clothes, be prepared to sometimes find a less than open welcome.

All pictures are © Dr. Günther Eichhorn

Irish Countryside

irish country sideIrish country side. (504k) hills lakes boyleHills and lakes near Boyle. (555k) stone walls ringStone walls ring many fields and pastures. (595k) stairs over stoneStairs over one of the stone walls around a field. (813k) lake south sideLake on the south side of Mor Choaird Bheara (the Beara Peninsula), a very scenic part of Ireland. (454k)
view mor choairdView of Mor Choaird Bheara (the Beara Peninsula). (598k) view kinsale countyView of Kinsale, County Cork. (573k) coastal village southCoastal village on the south coast of County Cork. (750k) typical busy villageA typical busy village street. (588k) yachts harbor kinsaleYachts in the harbor of Kinsale, County Cork. As usual it was raining. (998k)
scenic afternoon waterScenic afternoon on the water. (478k) need satellite tvYou need your satellite TV, even in a camper. (599k)

Irish Music

traditional irish musicTraditional Irish music in the local pub. (1586k) musicianMusician. (1455k) young fiddle playerYoung fiddle player. He was probably around 15 years old. (1501k) musician playing bodhranMusician playing the Bodhran, the Irish drum. (1544k) telling stories jokesHe was telling stories and jokes. (1576k)
locals pubLocals in the pub. (1319k)

Churches, Abbeys, High Crosses, and Round Towers

corcomroe abbey formerCorcomroe Abbey. The former Cistercian abbey was founded in 1194 by Donal Mór O'Brien, King of Thomond. (656k) burrishoole abbey newportBurrishoole Abbey near Newport, County Mayo. (530k) tombstone burrishoole abbeyTombstone in Burrishoole Abbey. Note that his wife survived him by 43 years and two world wars. (632k) boyle abbey countyBoyle Abbey (County Roscommon), one of Ireland's finest Cistercian abbeys. (600k) boyle abbeyBoyle Abbey. (516k)
boyle abbeyBoyle Abbey. (556k) carved stone capitalCarved stone capital in Boyle Abbey. (451k) round tower monasterboiceRound Tower at Monasterboice Abbey, one of the finest and highest in Ireland. (492k) 10th century high10th century High Cross at Monasterboice Abbey, County Louth. (817k) 10th century high10th century High Cross at Monasterboice Abbey. (629k)
round tower cluainRound Tower at Cluain Mhic Nóis (Clonmacnoise), County Offaly. It was founded in 548 by St. Ciarán. (524k) church ruin buildingChurch ruin of the building dedicated to St. Ciarán, the founder of Cluain Mhic Nóis. (748k) high cross museumHigh Cross in the museum at Cluain Mhic Nóis from the 10th century. (432k) high cross museumHigh Cross in the museum at Cluain Mhic Nóis from the 10th century. (447k) 10th century high10th century High Cross in the 9th century monastery at Castledermot. (629k)
closeup high crossesCloseup of one of the High Crosses in Castledermot. (422k) rock cashel cashelRock of Cashel, in Cashel, County Tipperary. (668k) church ruin belowChurch ruin below the Rock of Cashel. (577k) round tower abbeyRound Tower and abbey on the Rock of Cashel. (496k) monument rock cashelMonument on the Rock of Cashel. (378k)


carrigafoyle castle beaCarrigafoyle Castle, near Bea Atha Longphuirb (Ballylongford), County Kerry. It was probably build at the end of the 15th century. (499k) rockfleet castle 15thRockfleet Castle, a 15th century tower house near Newport, County Mayo. (580k) rockfleet castleRockfleet Castle. (696k) ballycarbery castle cathairBallycarbery Castle, near Cathair Saidhthin (Caherciveen), County Kerry. This was one of the nicest looking castles I saw. (442k) dunguaire castle kinvaraDunguaire Castle, in Kinvara, County Galway. (437k)
trim castle trimTrim Castle, in Trim, County Meath. It was founded in 1173. (436k) kilkenny castle kilkennyKilkenny Castle in Kilkenny City, County Kilkenny. It was founded in 1172 by Richard de Clare, the Anglo-Norman conqueror of Ireland, known as Strongbow. (595k) kilkenny castleKilkenny Castle. (604k) cahir castle cahirCahir Castle in Cahir, County Tipperary. It was founded in 1142 and was of great strategic importance. (796k) doorway chutes aboveDoorway with chutes above to pour hot oil on attackers. (816k)
stone carved familyStone carved family crest in Cahir Castle. (774k) charles fort kinsaleCharles Fort, near Kinsale, County Cork. It is a huge star shaped fort from the 17th century, one of the best preserved in Europe. (528k)

Ring Forts

cahergall ring fortCahergall Ring Fort from the 10th century, near Cathair Saidhthin (Caherciveen), County Kerry. (461k) inside view cahergallInside view of the Cahergall Ring Fort. (488k) staigue ring fortStaigue Ring Fort. It dates probably from the 3rd or 4th century, near Castlecove, County Kerry. (599k) entrance staigue fortEntrance to the Staigue Fort. It is very narrow to make it difficult for enemies to get in. (713k) tír na haiohleannTír na h'Aiohleann (Tiernahillane) Ring Fort, near Castletownbere, County Cork. This Ring Fort is not excavated or restored. (666k)

Stone Age Monuments

turoe stone earlyTuroe Stone, an early Celtic standing stone carved in La Tène style, dating from between 300 BCE and 200 CE. It is located near Bullaun, County Galway. (942k) ballymacgibbon cairn congBallymacgibbon Cairn, near Cong, County Mayo. (515k) carrowkeel passage tombCarrowkeel passage tomb cemetery near Castlebaldwin, County Sligo. (493k) carrowkeel passage tombCarrowkeel passage tomb cemetery. (473k) carrowkeel passage tombCarrowkeel passage tomb. (721k)
knowth passage tombsKnowth passage tombs at Brú Na Bóinne, County Meath. (364k) entrance stones mainEntrance stones to the main Knowth Cairn. (789k) decorated kerbstones aroundDecorated kerbstones around the main Knowth cairn. (666k) decorated kerbstone aroundDecorated kerbstone around the main Knowth cairn. (477k) decorated kerbstone aroundDecorated kerbstone around the main Knowth cairn. (493k)
white quartz stonesWhite quartz stones and platforms next to the main cairn of Knowth. (911k) stone ring carrowmoreStone Ring at Carrowmore Megalithic Cemetery, near Sligo City, County Sligo. (647k) view mountains aroundView of the mountains around Carrowmore Megalithic Cemetery. Nearly every peak has a cairn on top. (399k) largest cairns knocknareaThe largest of these cairns, the Knocknarea cairn, near Sligo City, County Sligo. (238k) caiseal coíllte cashelkeeltyCaiseal Coíllte (Cashelkeelty) Stone Circle between Castletownbere and Glengarriff, Beara Peninsula, County Cork. (730k)
srón bearraín shronebirraneSrón Bearraín (Shronebirrane) Stone Circle, Beara Peninsula. It is in a pasture with sheep and all. (827k) doirin tsagairt derreenataggartDoirin an t'Sagairt (Derreenataggart) Stone Circle, near Castletownbere, County Cork. (703k) rath chruinn dhaAn Rath Chruinn Dha Dhroim (Ardgroom) Stone Circle, a very nice Bronze Age monument, near Castletownbere. (825k) stone circle congStone Circle near Cong, County Mayo. This circle has the largest diameter of the circles that I saw. (757k) dromberg stone circleDromberg Stone Circle, near Roscarberry, County Cork. This is one of the nicest Stone Circles, probably from around the 1st century CE, maybe even earlier. (803k)
building foundation nextBuilding foundation next to the Dromberg Stone Circle. (966k) drumanone dolmen boyleDrumanone Dolmen near Boyle. (662k) poulnabrone dolmen burrenPoulnabrone Dolmen in the Burren, County Clare. (569k) poulnabrone dolmen burrenPoulnabrone Dolmen in the Burren, County Clare. (534k) dolmain chnoi bhrúnaighDolmain Chnoi an Bhrúnaigh (Browne's Hill Dolmen) near Carlow Town, County Carlow. The cap stone of this 5000 year old dolmen, Europe's largest, weighs over 100 tons. (590k)
view dolmain chnoiView of the Dolmain Chnoi an Bhrúnaigh across the pasture. (406k)

Wild flowers

heath flowersHeath flowers. (583k) heath flowersHeath flowers. (356k) fuchsiaFuchsia. (423k) crocosmia also calledCrocosmia, also called Montbretia. (522k)

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All pictures are © Dr. Günther Eichhorn

Éire - Ireland: The Emerald Isle on

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